Cross-cultural Adaptation of a Questionnaire on Self-perceived Level of Skills, Abilities and Competencies of Family Physicians in Albania
Arben Alla, Katarzyna Czabanowska, Violetta Kijowska, Enver Roshi, Genc Burazeri
Mat Soc Med. 2012; 24(4): 220-222

View PDF Fulltext


Objective: Our aim was to validate an international instrument measuring self-perceived competency level of family physicians in Albania. Methods: A representative sample of 57 family physicians operating in primary health care services was interviewed twice in March-April 2012 in Tirana (26 men and 31 women; median age: 46 years, inter-quartile range: 38-56 years). A structured questionnaire was administered [and subsequently re-administered after two weeks (test-retest)] to all family physicians aiming to self-assess physicians’ level of abilities, skills and competencies regarding different domains of quality of health care. The questionnaire included 37 items organized into 6 subscales/domains. Answers for each item of the tool ranged from 1 (“novice” physicians) to 5 (“expert” physicians). An overall summary score (range: 37-185) and a subscale summary score for each domain were calculated for the test and retest procedures. Cronbach’s alpha was used to assess the internal consistency for both the test and the retest procedures, whereas Spearman’s rho was employed to assess the stability over time (test-retest reliability) of the instrument. Results: Cronbach’s alpha was 0.87 for the test and 0.86 for the retest procedure. Overall, Spearman’s rho was 0.84 (P<0.001). The overall summary score for the 37 items of the instrument was 96.3±10.0 for the test and 97.3±10.1 for the retest. All the subscale summary scores were very similar for the test and the retest procedure. Conclusion: This study provides evidence on cross-cultural adaptation of an international instrument taping self-perceived level of competencies of family physicians in Albania. The questionnaire displayed a satisfactory internal consistency for both test and retest procedures in this sample of family physicians in Albania. Furthermore, the high test-retest reliability (stability over time) of the instrument suggests a good potential for wide scale application to nationally representative samples of family physicians in Albanian populations.


1. Sipkoff M. The new consensus favouring IOM’s definition of quality. Manag Care. 2004; 13: 18-27.

2. Engels Y, Wollersheim H, Verheggen F, Grol R. Final Report “Education on the Quality of Care in the Faculties of Medicine, Biomedical Sciences and Health Sciences in the Netherlands”. Njimegen: Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Centre for Quality of Care Research; 2007. Available from:

3. Allen J, Gay B, Crebolder H, Heyrman J, Svab I, Ram P. The European definition of General Practice/Family Medicine. Evans P, editor. Wonca Europe; 2005. Available from:

4. Michels NR, Denekens J, Driessen EW, Van Gaal LF, Bossaert LL, De Winter BY. BMC Medical Education. 2012; 12: 86.

5. Frank JR, Danoff D: The CanMEDS initiative: implementing an outcomes-based framework of physician competences. Medical Teacher. 2007; 29(7): 642–647.

6. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education: Competences and Outcome Assessment. Available at:

7. Tomorrow’s Doctors. London: General Medical Council. Available at:

8. Schlettes S, Frolich A, Marti T. The Bellagio Model: Population-oriented Primary Care. Paper presented at the International Forum on Quality and Safety in Health Care, Berlin; 2009.

9. Leach D, C. Changing education to improve patient care. Quality in Health Care. 2001; 10(2): 1154–1158

10. Czabanowska K, Klemenc-Ketis Z, Potter A, Rochfort A, Tomasik T, Csiszar J, Vanden Bussche P. Development of the competency framework in quality improvement for Family Medicine in Europe: a qualitative study. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions (in press; accepted on 15/05/2012).

Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.


Ova web-stranica koristi Akismet za zaštitu protiv spama. Saznajte kako se obrađuju podaci komentara.