Quality of Life Factor as Breast Cancer Risks
Ibrahim Gledo, Nurka Pranjic, Subhija Prasko
Mat Soc Med. 2012; 24(3): 171-177
Background: Numerous studies have observed risk factors for breast cancer. We investigated the association between quality life factors as breast cancer risks in a case-control study in industrial Zenica- Doboj Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: The case-control study was included 200 women, 100 without (control subjects) and 100 women with diagnosed breast cancer. We used questionnaires about breast cancer risks“ as study tool. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and a full assessment of confounding was included in analysis. Results: Breast cancer was positive associated with increasing age of life (from 45 years and more; OR= 1.25); further relative breast cancer history (OR= 4.42; 95%CI, 0.483-4.043); exposure to CT (OR=2.02; 95%CI, 1,254-3.261); never birth child (OR= 1.394; 95%CI, 0.808-2,407); used replacement hormonal therapy (OR= 1.826; 95%CI, 1.637-10.590); arrival time of menstruation (OR=2.651; 95%CI, 1.303-1.571); length of smoking status (OR=1.534; 95%CI, 0.756-3.098), alcohol consumption (OR=1.728; 95% CI, 0.396-7.533); exposure to CT per year (p=0.009), routine physical inactivity (p=0.009) and replacement hormones treatment (p=0.036). Conclusion: Inverse associations of breast cancer and poverty, arival time of menopause were observed. The link between breast cancer and a distant-cousin- degree family history of breast cancer was inverse association with breast cancer too. These results provide further evidence that, for most women, physical activity may reduce the risk of invasive breast cancer.
1. Autier P, Boniol M, LaVecchia C, Vatten L, et al. Disparities in breast cancer mortality trends between 30 European countries: retrospective trend analysis of WHO mortality database. BMJ. 2010; 34: c3620.
2. Vainio H, Bianchini F (eds). Weight Control and Physical Activity. World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer: IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention. Lyons: IARC Press, 2002: 6.
3. Berglund G. Anthropometry, physical activity and cancer of the breast and colon. In Nutrition and Lifestyle: Opportunities for Cancer Prevention. Edited by Riboli EL. Lyons: IARC Scientific Publications, 2002: 231-241.
4. Anderson BO, Shyyan R, Eniu A, Smith RA, et al. Breast cancer in limited-resource countries: An overview of the breast health global initiative 2005 guidelines. Breast J. 2006; 12(1): S3-S15.
5. Brody JG, Rudel RA. Environmental pollutants and breast cancer. Environ Health Perspect. 2003; 111: 1007-1019.
6. Hill DA, Preston- Martin S, Ross RK, Bernstein L. Medical radiation, family hystory of cancer, and benign breast disease in relation to breast cancer risk in young women, USA. Cancer Causes Contro. 2002; 13(8): 711-718.
7. Byme C. Mammographic density: a breast cancer risk factor or diagnostic indicator? Acad Radiol. 2002; 9(3): 253-255.
8. Bergstrom A, Pisani P, Tenet V, Wolk A, Adami H. Overweight as an avoidable cause of cancer in Europe. Int J Cancer. 2001; 91: 421-430.
9. Cantor KP, Stewart PA, Brinton LA, Dosemeci M. Occupational exposures and female breast cancer mortality in the U.S. J Occup Environ Med. 1995; 37(3): 336-348.
10. Chang SC, Ziegler RG, Dunn B, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, et al. Association of energy intake and energy balance with postmenopausal breast cancer in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006; 15(2): 334-341.
11. Hansen J. Elevated risk for male breast cancer after occupational exposure to gasoline and vehicular combustion products. Am J Ind Med. 37: 349–352.
12. Hemminki K, Zhang H, Czene K. Socioeconomic factors in cancer in Sweden. Int J Cancer. 2003; 105(5): 692-700.
13. Hemminki K, Li X. University and medical education and the risk of cancer in Sweden. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2004; 13(3): 199-205.
14. Schernhammer ES, Laden F, Speiter FE, Willett WC, et al. Rotating night shifts and risk of breast cancer in women participating in the nurses health study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001; 93(20): 1563-1568.
15. Megdal SP, Kroenke CH, Laden F, Pukkala E, et al. Night work and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer. 2005; 41(13): 2023-2032.
16. Fayers PM, Machin D. Quality of Life: assessment, analysis and Interpretation. J Wiley & SonsLtd, Chichester. 2000; ISBN:0-47-96861-7.
17. Aronson NK, Ahmedzai S, Bergman B, et al. The European Organization for research and treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30: A quality of life instrument for international clinicial trials in oncology. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993; 85(20): 365-376.
18. The world Health Report 2002. Reducing risks, Promoting Health. Report. World Health Organization, 2002.
19. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Breast Cancer Screening, accessed online at www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstf/uspsbrca.htm, on Nov. 20, 2009.
20. John EM, Kelsey JL. Radiation and other environmental exposures and breast cancer. Epidemiol Rev. 1993; 15: 157-162.
21. Institute for public health FB&H. Health Epidemiological Situation in FB&H in 2010: epidemiological bilten. Sarajevo-Mostar, 2011.
22. Saric S. Breast cancer patient’s quality of life compared to correctible risk factors of life style. HealthMed. 2009; 3(3): 267-272.
23. Office for National Statistics. Cancer statistics registration of cancer diagnosed in 2008, England. Series MBI no39. 2010; National Statistics, London.
24. Watson E, Austoker J, Lucassena A. A study of GP referrals to a family cancer clinic for breast/ovarian cancer. Oxford Journals of Medicine, Family Practice. 2000; 18(2): 131-134.
25. Horner MJ, Ries LAG, Krapcho M, Neyman N, et al. Cancer Stat Fact Sheets. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2006, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2006/, based on November 2008 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, 2009.
26. Key TJ, Appleby PN, Reeves GK, Roddam A, et al. Body mass index, serum sex hormones, and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003; 95(16): 1218-1226.
27. Pukkala E, Weiderpass E. Time trends in socio-economic differences in incidence rates of cancers of the breast and female genital organs (Finland, 1971-1995). Int J Cancer. 1999; 81(1): 56-61.
28. Sprague BL, Trentham- Dietz A, Newcomb PA, at al. Lifetime recreational and occupational physical activity and risk of in situ and invasive breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007; 16(2): 236-243.
29. Kruk J. Lifetime physical activity and the risk of breast cancer: a case-control study. Cancer Detect Prev. 2007; 31 (1): 18-28.
30. Shaham J, Gurvich R, Goral A, Czerniak A. The risk of breast cancer in relation to health habits and occupational exposure. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 2006; 49(12): 1021.
31. Guttes S, Failing K, Neumann J, et al. Chloroganic pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in breast tissue of women with benign and malignant breast disease. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1998; 35: 140-147.
32. Dedić S, Pranjić N. Lung cancer risk from exposure to diagnosti x-rays. HealthMed. 2009; 3(3): 307-313.
33. Fenton SE. Endocrine-disrupting compounds and mammary gland development: early exposure and later life consequences. Endocrinology. 2006; 147: S18-24.
34. Dedić S, Pranjić N. Dietary factors as predictors for lung cancer: survey control study. HealthMed. 2008; 2(4): 198-205.