Conflict of Interest Policies and Disclosure Requirements Among European Society of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Journals
Fernando Alfonso, Adam Timmis, Fausto J. Pinto, Giuseppe Ambrosio, Hugo Ector, Piotr Kulakowski, Panos Vardas Loizos Antoniades, Mansoor Ahmad, Eduard Apetrei, Kaduo Arai, Jean-Yves Artigou, Michael Aschermann, Michael Böhm, Leonardo Bolognese, Raffaele Bugiardini, Ariel Cohen, Istvan Edes, Joseph Elias, Javier Galeano, Eduardo Guarda, Habib Haouala, Magda Heras, Christer Höglund, Kurt Huber, Ivan Hulin, Mario Ivanusa, Rungroj Krittayaphong, Chi-Tai Kuo, Chu-Pak Lau, Victor A. Lyusov, Germanas Marinskis, Manlio F Márquez, Izet Masic, Luiz Felipe Pinho Moreira, Alexander Mrochek, Rafael G. Oganov, Dimitar Raev, Mamanti Rogava, Olaf Rødevand, Vedat Sansoy, Hiroaki Shimokawa, Valentin A. Shumakov, Carlos Daniel Tajer, Ernst E. van der Wall, Christodoulos Stefanadis, Jørgen Videbæk, Thomas F. Lüscher
Med Arh. 2012; 66(3): 148-154
Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest (COI) is used by biomedical journals to guarantee credibility and transparency of the scientific process. COI disclosure, however, is not systematically nor consistently dealt with by journals. Recent joint editorial efforts paved the way towards the implementation of uniform vehicles for COI disclosure. This paper provides a comprehensive editorial perspective on classical COI-related issues. New insights into current COI policies and practices among European Society of Cardiology national cardiovascular journals, as derived from a cross-sectional survey using a standardised questionnaire, are discussed.
1. International Committee of Medical Journals Editors. Uniform Requirements for Manuscript Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication. (Updated October 2008). Available: http://www.icmje.org/.
2. Council of Science Editors. CSE’s White Paper on Promoting Integrity in Scientific Journal Publications. Editorial policy committee (2005-2006). Available: http://www.CouncilScienceEditors.org
3. World Association of Medical Editors. WAME recommendations on Publication Ethics and Policies for Medical Journals. Available: http://www.wame.org/resources/ethics-resources.
4. Committee On Publication Ethics. COPE. Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors. Available: http://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines.
5. Alfonso F, Bermejo J, Segovia J. New recommendations of the international committee of medical journal editors. Shifting focus: from uniformity in technical requirements to bioethical considerations. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2004 Jun; 57(6): 592-593.
6. Blum JA, Freeman K, Dart RC, Cooper RJ. Requirements and definitions in conflict of interest policies of medical journals. JAMA. 2009; 302(20): 2230-2234.
7. Cooper RJ, Gupta M, Wilkes MS, Hoffman JR. Conflict of Interest Disclosure Policies and Practices in Peer-reviewed Biomedical Journals. J Gen Intern Med. 2006; 21(12): 1248-1252.
8. Bekelman JE, MPhil YL, Gross CP. Scope and impact of financial conflicts of interest in biomedical research: a systematic review. JAMA. 2003; 289(4): 454-465.
9. DeAngelis CD, Fontanarosa PB. Resolving unreported conflicts of interest. JAMA. 2009; 302(2): 198-199.
10. Studdert DM, Mello MM, Phil M, Brennan TA. Financial conflicts of interest in physicians´ relationships with the pharmaceutical industry. Self-regulation in the shadow of federal prosecution. N Engl J Med. 2004; 351: 1891-1900.
11. Drazen JM, Van der Weyden MB, Sahni P, Rosenberg J, Marusic A, Laine C, Kotzin S, Horton R, Hébert PC, Haug C, Godlee F, Frizelle FA, de Leeuw PW, DeAngelis CD. Uniform format for disclosure of competing interests in ICMJE journals. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361(19): 1896-1897.
12. Drazen JM, de Leeuw PW, Laine C, Mulrow C, DeAngelis CD, Frizelle FA, Godlee F, Haug C, Hébert PC, James A, Kotzin S, Marusic A, Reyes H, Rosenberg J, Sahni P, Van der Weyden MB, Zhaori G. Toward more uniform conflict disclosures – The updated ICMJE conflict of interest reporting form. N Engl J Med. 2010; 363(2): 188-189.
13. Alfonso F, Ambrosio G, Pinto FJ, Van der Wall EE, Kondili A, Nibouche D, Adamyan K, Huber K, Ector H, Masic I, Tarnovska R, Ivanusa M, Stanĕk V, Videbaek J, Hamed M, Laucevicius A, Mustonen P, Artigou JY, Cohen A, Rogava M, Böhm M, Fleck E, Heusch G, Klawki R, Vardas P, Stefanadis C, Tenczer J, Chiariello M, Elias J, Benjelloun H, Rødevand O, Kułakowski P, Apetrei E, Lusov VA, Oganov RG, Obradovic V, Kamensky G, Kenda MF, Höglund C, Lüscher TF, Lerch R, Jokhadar M, Haouala H, Sansoy V, Shumakov V, Timmis A. European National Society cardiovascular journals. Background, rationale and mission statement of the “Editors’ Club”. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2008 Jun; 61(6): 644-650.
14. Alfonso F, Ambrosio G, Pinto FJ, Ector H, Vardas P, Kulakowski P, Timmis A; Editors’ Network ESC Task Force. European Society of Cardiology national cardiovascular journals: the ‘Editors’ Network’. Eur Heart J. 2010 Jan; 31(1): 26-28.
15. Mills P, Timmis A, Huber K, Ector H, Lancellotti P, Masic I, Ivanusa M, Antoniades L, Aschermann M, Laucevicius A, Mustonen P, Artigou JY, Vardas P, Stefanadis C, Chiarello M, Bolognese L, Ambrosio G, van der Wall EE, Kułakowski P, Pinto FJ, Apetrei E, Oganov RG, Kamensky G, Lüscher TF, Lerch R, Haouala H, Sansoy V, Shumakov V, Tajer CD, Lau CP, Márquez M, Krittayaphong R, Arai K, Alfonso F. The role of European national journals in education. Heart. 2009 Dec; 95(24): e3.
16. Alfonso F. The Editors’ Network of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J. 2011 Apr; 32(8): 919-921.
17. Schwartz RS, Curfman GD, Morrissey S, Drazen JM. Full disclosure and the funding of biomedical research. N Engl J Med. 2008; 358(17): 1850-1851.
18. Simone J. More interest in conflicts of interest. Lancet Oncol. 2009; 10: 836-837.
19. Conti RC. Conflict of interest. Clin Cardiol. 2009; 32: 666-667.
20. Fontanarosa PB, Flanagin A, DeAngelis CD. Reporting conflicts of interest, financial aspects of research and role of sponsors in funded studies. JAMA 2005; 294(1): 110-111.
21. Alpert JS. Doctors and the drug industry: how can we handle potential conflicts of interest? Am J Med. 2005 Feb; 118(2): 99-100.
22. Alpert JS. Doctors and the drug-industry: Further thoughts for dealing with potential conflicts of interest? Am J Med. 2008 Apr; 121(4): 253-255.
23. Lanier WL. Bidirectional conflicts of interest involving industry and medical journals: who will champion integrity? Mayo Clin Proc. 2009 Sep; 84(9): 771-775.
24. Bove A. Relations with industry: thoughts on claims of a broken system. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 54(2): 177-179.
25. Bodenheimer T. The uneasy alliance: Clinical investigators and the pharmaceutical industry. N Engl J Med. 2000; 342(20): 1539-1544.
26. Goldacre B. Is the conflict of interest unacceptable when drug companies conduct trials on their own drugs? Yes. BMJ. 2009 Nov 27; 339: b4949.
27. Davidoff F, de Angelis CD, Drazen JM, Hoey J, Hjgaard L, Horton R, Kotzin S, Nicholls MG, Nylenna M, Overbeke JP, Sox HC, van der Weyden MB, Wilkes MS; International Committee of Medical Journal Editorset al. Sponsorship, authorship and accountability. Lancet. 2001; 358: 854-856.
28. Johns MM, Barners M, Florencio PS. Restoring balance to industry-academia relationships in an era of institutional financial conflicts of interest: promoting research while maintaining trust. JAMA. 2003; 289(6): 741-746.
29. Alfonso F, Segovia J, Heras M, Bermejo J. Publication of clinical trials in scientific journals: Editorial issues. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2006 Nov; 59(11): 1206-1214.
30. Patsopoulos NA, Analatos AA, Ioannidis JP. Origin and funding of the most frequently cited papers in medicine: database analysis. BMJ. 2006; 332(7549): 1061-1064.
31. Lexchin J, Bero LA, Djulbegovic B, Clark O. Pharmaceutical industry sponsorship and research outcome and quality: systematic review. BMJ. 2003; 326(7400): 1167-1170
32. Finucane TE, Boult CE. Association of funding and findings of pharmaceutical research at a meeting of a medical professional society. Am J Med. 2004; 117(11): 842-845.
33. Hirsch LJ. Conflicts of interest, authorship, and disclosures in industry-related scientific publications: The tort bar and editorial oversight of medical journals. Mayo Clin Proc. 2009; 84(9): 811-821.
34. Krzyanowska MK, Pintilie M, Tannock IF. Factors associated with failure to publish large randomized trials presented at an oncology meeting. JAMA. 2003; 290(4): 495-501.
35. Chan AW, Krleza-Jerić K, Schmid I, Altman DC. Outcome reporting bias in randomized trials funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. CMAJ. 2004; 171(7): 735-740.
36. Alfonso F, Bermejo J, Segovia J. Duplicate or redundant publication: can we afford it?. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2005 May; 58(5): 601-604.
37. Hirsch L. Randomized clinical trials: what gets published, and when? CMAJ. 2004; 170(4): 481-483.
38. Kjaergard LL, Als-Nielsen B. Association between competing interests and authors’ conclusions: epidemiological study of randomised clinical trials published in the BMJ. BMJ. 2002; 325(7358): 249
39. Ridker PM, Torres J. Reported outcomes in major cardiovascular clinical trials funded by for profit and not-for-profit organizations: 2000-2005. JAMA. 2006; 295(19): 2270-2274.
40. Krimsky S, Rothenberg LS. Conflict of interest policies in science and medical journals: editors practices and authors disclosures. Sci Eng Ethics. 2001; 7(2): 205-218.
41. Ancker JS, Flanagin A. A comparison of conflict of interest policies at peer-reviewed journals in different scientific disciplines. Sci Eng Ethics. 2007; 13(2): 147-157.
42. Weinfurt KP, Seils DM, Tzeng JP, Lin L, Schulman KA, Califf RM. Consistency of financial interest disclosures in the biomedical literature: The case of coronary stents. PLoS ONE. 2008; 3(5): e2128.
43. Smith R. Medical journals are an extension of the marketing arm of pharmaceutical companies. PLoS Med. 2005; 2(5): e138.
44. The Editors. Publishing commentary by authors with potential conflicts of interest: When, Why and How. Annals Intern Med. 2004; 141(1): 73-74.
45. Vorobiof G. Do conflict of interest really matter or does no one read the fine print anyway? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 51(19): 1911.
46. Tanne JH. US Senate committee investigates conflicts of interest in industry funded medical education. BMJ. 2009 Aug 4; 339: b3139.
47. Rothman KJ. Conflict of interest. The new McCarthyism in science. JAMA. 1993; 269(21): 2782-2784.
48. Avanzas P, Bayes-Genis A, Pérez de Isla L, Sanchis J, Heras M. Ethical considerations in the publication of scientific articles. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2011 May; 64(5): 427-429.
49. ESC Statement on COI policy. PENDING PUBLICATION. Simultaneous Issue of EHJ in 2012.