The Application of Current Diagnostic Protocols of patients with colon cancer in Preparation for Therapy
Zora Vukobrat-Bijedic, Azra Husic-Selimovic, Amela Sofic, Nina Bijedic, Bisera Gogov, Aleksandra Djuran, Amila Redzepovic, Aida Saray, Ivana Bjelogrlic
Acta Inform Med. 2012; 20(4): 238-241
Introduction: Colorectal cancer is the third most common tumor which causes high percentage of mortality in the general population. Etiologic factors which cause this disease are various, while diagnostic methods involve very complex protocols from detection of tumor markers to a combination of endoscopic and imaging methods. Goal: To determine the number of patients suffering from colon cancer for a period of two years and with endoscopic methods to verify and localize the tumor and its spread. Histopathological determination of the tumor type. Determine the concentration of CEA and CA 19-9 in the serum. Depending on the tumor location asses its progression, severity and extent by radiological imaging methods. Material and Methods: The study was prospective and retrospective, performed at the Gastroenterohepatology Clinic of the Clinical Center of Sarajevo University. During the two-year follow-up, 91 patients were hospitalized underwent endoscopy, targeted biopsy and histologically proven adenocarcinoma of the colon in which a pathologist determined grade of the cancers. Samples were eosin stained and underwent pathological-histological analyzes. All patients according to tumor localization underwent CT scan and MRI of the rectum and pelvis. Results: The most common location of the cancer regardless of sex was in the recto sigmoid colon. Prevalence of colorectal cancer spread to other organs was not related to location. No significant dependence of the localization of the tumor by gender was found (p-value = 0.313). Ca 19-9 had the highest value in localization of tumors in the rectum. There was no statistically significant difference in age between men and women. The largest number of patients has adenocarcinoma grade 2 and the localization at the rectum. Conclusion: The combination of laboratory parameters (CEA and CA 19-9) with endoscopic and radiological imaging methods is essential in diagnosis of colorectal cancer and assessment of the process progression. There is a need to impose additional diagnostic parameters to detect the disease at an earlier stage.