Almanac 2011: Valvular Heart Disease. The National Society Journals Present Selected Research That Has Driven Recent Advances in Clinical Cardiology
Raphael Rosenhek
Mat Soc Med. 2012; 24(1): 4-15

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1. d’Arcy JL, Prendergast BD, Chambers JB, et al. Valvular heart disease: the next cardiac epidemic. Heart. 2011; 97: 91e3.

2. Stritzke J, Linsel-Nitschke P, Markus MR, et al. Association between degenerative aortic valve disease and long-term exposure to cardiovascular risk factors: results of the longitudinal population-based KORA/MONICA survey. Eur Heart J. 2009;30: 2044e53.

3. Akahori H, Tsujino T, Naito Y, et al. Intraleaflet haemorrhage is associated with rapid progression of degenerative aortic valve stenosis. Eur Heart J. 2011;32: 888e96.

4. Antonini-Canterin F, Leiballi E, Enache R, et al. Hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme – a reductase inhibitors delay the progression of rheumatic aortic valve stenosis a long-term echocardiographic study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 53: 1874e9.

5. Chan KL, Teo K, Dumesnil JG, et al. Effect of Lipid lowering with rosuvastatin on progression of aortic stenosis: results of the aortic stenosis progression observation: measuring effects of rosuvastatin (ASTRONOMER) trial. Circulation. 2010; 121: 306e14.

6. Monin JL, Lancellotti P, Monchi M, et al. Risk score for predicting outcome in patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis. Circulation. 2009; 120: 69e75.

7. Rosenhek R, Zilberszac R, Schemper M, et al. Natural history of very severe aortic stenosis. Circulation. 2010; 121: 151e6.

8. Lancellotti P, Donal E, Magne J, et al. Risk stratification in asymptomatic moderate to severe aortic stenosis: the importance of the valvular, arterial and ventricular interplay. Heart. 2010; 96: 1364e71.

9. Kang DH, Park SJ, Rim JH, et al. Early surgery versus conventional treatment in asymptomatic very severe aortic stenosis. Circulation. 2010; 121: 1502e9.

10. Marechaux S, Hachicha Z, Bellouin A, et al. Usefulness of exercise-stress echocardiography for risk stratification of true asymptomatic patients with aortic valve stenosis. Eur Heart J. 2010; 31: 1390e7.

11. Rajani R, Rimington H, Chambers JB. Treadmill exercise in apparently asymptomatic patients with moderate or severe aortic stenosis: relationship between cardiac index and revealed symptoms. Heart. 2010; 96: 689e95.

12. Hachicha Z, Dumesnil JG, Pibarot P. Usefulness of the valvuloarterial impedance to predict adverse outcome in asymptomatic aortic stenosis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 54: 1003e11.

13. Dweck MR, Joshi S, Murigu T, et al. Midwall fibrosis is an independent predictor of mortality in patients with aortic stenosis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 58: 1271e9.

14. Ng AC, Delgado V, Bertini M, et al. Alterations in multidirectional myocardial functions in patients with aortic stenosis and preserved ejection fraction: a two-dimensional speckle tracking analysis. Eur Heart J. 2011; 32: 1542e50.

15. Delgado V, Tops LF, van Bommel RJ, et al. Strain analysis in patients with severe aortic stenosis and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction undergoing surgical valve replacement. Eur Heart J. 2009; 30: 3037e47. Heart. 2001; 97: 2007e 2017. [DOI via Crossref] 16. Cramariuc D, Gerdts E, Davidsen ES, et al. Myocardial deformation in aortic valve stenosis: relation to left ventricular geometry. Heart. 2010; 96: 106e12.

17. Cioffi G, Faggiano P, Vizzardi E, et al. Prognostic effect of inappropriately high left ventricular mass in asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis. Heart. 2011; 97: 301e7.

18. Stewart RA, Kerr AJ, Whalley GA, et al. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function assessed by tissue Doppler imaging and outcome in asymptomatic aortic stenosis. Eur Heart J. 2010; 31: 2216e22.

19. Schueler R, Hammerstingl C, Sinning JM, et al. Prognosis of octogenarians with severe aortic valve stenosis at high risk for cardiovascular surgery. Heart. 2010; 96: 1831e6.

20. Ben-Dor I, Pichard AD, Gonzalez MA, et al. Correlates and causes of death in patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who are not eligible to participate in a clinical trial of transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Circulation. 2010; 122: S37e42.

21. Aksoy O, Yousefzai R, Singh D, et al. Cardiogenic shock in the setting of severe aortic stenosis: role of intra-aortic balloon pump support. Heart. 2011; 97: 838e43.

22. Tribouilloy C, Levy F, Rusinaru D, et al. Outcome after aortic valve replacement for low-flow/low-gradient aortic stenosis without contractile reserve on dobutamine stress echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 53: 1865e73.

23. Cueff C, Serfaty JM, Cimadevilla C, et al. Measurement of aortic valve calcification using multislice computed tomography: correlation with haemodynamic severity of aortic stenosis and clinical implication for patients with low ejection fraction. Heart. 2011; 97: 721e6.

24. Minners J, Allgeier M, Gohlke-Baerwolf C, et al. Inconsistent grading of aortic valve stenosis by current guidelines: haemodynamic studies in patients with apparently normal left ventricular function. Heart. 2010; 96: 1463e8.

25. Jander N, Minners J, Holme I, et al. Outcome of patients with low-gradient “severe” aortic stenosis and preserved ejection fraction. Circulation. 2011; 123: 887e95.

26. Herrmann S, Stork S, Niemann M, et al. Low-gradient aortic valve stenosis myocardial fibrosis and its influence on function and outcome. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 58: 402e12.

27. Linefsky JP, O’Brien KD, Katz R, et al. Association of serum phosphate levels with aortic valve sclerosis and annular calcification: the cardiovascular health study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 58: 291e7.

28. Nagy E, Andersson DC, Caidahl K, et al. Upregulation of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway in human aortic valves correlates with severity of stenosis and leads to leukotriene-induced effects on valvular myofibroblasts. Circulation. 2011; 123: 1316e25.

29. El-Hamamsy I, Balachandran K, Yacoub MH, et al. Endothelium-dependent nregulation of the mechanical properties of aortic valve cusps. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 53: 1448e55.

30. Matsumoto Y, Adams V, Walther C, et al. Reduced number and function of endothelial progenitor cells in patients with aortic valve stenosis: a novel concept for valvular endothelial cell repair. Eur Heart J. 2009; 30: 346e55.

31. Aikawa E, Aikawa M, Libby P, et al. Arterial and aortic valve calcification abolished by elastolytic cathepsin S deficiency in chronic renal disease. Circulation. 2009; 119: 1785e94.

32. Matsumoto Y, Adams V, Jacob S, et al. Regular exercise training prevents aortic valve disease in low-density lipoprotein-receptor-deficient mice. Circulation. 2010; 121: 759e67.

33. Speidl WS, Cimmino G, Ibanez B, et al. Recombinant apolipoprotein A-I Milano rapidly reverses aortic valve stenosis and decreases leaflet inflammation in an experimental rabbit model. Eur Heart J. 2010; 31: 2049e57.

34. Miller JD, Weiss RM, Serrano KM, et al. Lowering plasma cholesterol levels halts progression of aortic valve disease in mice. Circulation. 2009; 119: 2693e701.

35. Falcao-Pires I, Hamdani N, Borbely A, et al. Diabetes mellitus worsens diastolic left ventricular dysfunction in aortic stenosis through altered myocardial structure and cardiomyocyte stiffness. Circulation. 2011; 124: 1151e9.

36. Sampat U, Varadarajan P, Turk R, et al. Effect of beta-blocker therapy on survival in patients with severe aortic regurgitation results from a cohort of 756 patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 54: 452e7.

37. Pai RG, Varadarajan P. Prognostic implications of mitral regurgitation in patients with severe aortic regurgitation. Circulation. 2010; 122: S43e7.

38. Kamath AR, Varadarajan P, Turk R, et al. Survival in patients with severe aortic regurgitation and severe left ventricular dysfunction is improved by aortic valve replacement: results from a cohort of 166 patients with an ejection fraction < or ¼35%. Circulation. 2009; 120: S134e8.

39. Villari B, Sossalla S, Ciampi Q, et al. Persistent diastolic dysfunction late after valve replacement in severe aortic regurgitation. Circulation. 2009; 120: 2386e92.

40. Aicher D, Kunihara T, Abou Issa O, et al. Valve configuration determines long-term results after repair of the bicuspid aortic valve. Circulation. 2011; 123: 178e85.

41. de Kerchove L, Boodhwani M, Glineur D, et al. Effects of preoperative aortic insufficiency on outcome after aortic valve-sparing surgery. Circulation. 2009; 120: S120e6.

42. Buchner S, Hulsmann M, Poschenrieder F, et al. Variable phenotypes of bicuspid aortic valve disease: classification by cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Heart. 2010; 96: 1233e40.

43. Fernandez B, Duran AC, Fernandez-Gallego T, et al. Bicuspid aortic valves with different spatial orientations of the leaflets are distinct etiological entities. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 54: 2312e18. 2015

44. Biner S, Rafique AM, Ray I, et al. Aortopathy is prevalent in relatives of bicuspid aortic valve patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 53: 2288e95.

45. Laksman ZW, Silversides CK, Sedlak T, et al. Valvular aortic stenosis as a major sequelae in patients with pre-existing subaortic stenosis changing spectrum of outcomes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 58: 962e5.

46. La Canna G, Maisano F, De Michele L, et al. Determinants of the degree of functional aortic regurgitation in patients with anatomically normal aortic valve and ascending thoracic aorta aneurysm. Transoesophageal Doppler echocardiography study. Heart. 2009; 95: 130e6.

47. Grotenhuis HB, Ottenkamp J, de Bruijn L, et al. Aortic elasticity and size are associated with aortic regurgitation and left ventricular dysfunction in tetralogy of Fallot after pulmonary valve replacement. Heart. 2009; 95: 1931e6.

48. Roberts WC, Vowels TJ, Ko JM, et al. Comparison of the structure of the aortic valve and ascending aorta in adults having aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis versus for pure aortic regurgitation and resection of the ascending aorta for aneurysm. Circulation. 2011; 123: 896e903.

49. Gaudino M, Anselmi A, Morelli M, et al. Aortic expansion rate in patients withndilated post-stenotic ascending aorta submitted only to aortic valve replacement long-term follow-up. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 58: 581e4.

50. Michelena HI, Khanna AD, Mahoney D, et al. Incidence of aortic complications in patients with bicuspid aortic valves. JAMA. 2011; 306: 1104e12.

51. Evangelista A, Avegliano G, Aguilar R, et al. Impact of contrast-enhanced echocardiography on the diagnostic algorithm of acute aortic dissection. Eur Heart J. 2010; 31: 472e9.

52. Magne J, Lancellotti P, Pierard LA. Exercise-induced changes in degenerative mitral regurgitation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 56: 300e9.

53. Attias D, Mansencal N, Auvert B, et al. Prevalence, characteristics, and outcomes of patients presenting with cardiogenic unilateral pulmonary edema. Circulation. 2010; 122: 1109e15.

54. Le Tourneau T, Messika-Zeitoun D, Russo A, et al. Impact of left atrial volume on clinical outcome in organic mitral regurgitation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 56: 570e8.

55. Tribouilloy C, Grigioni F, Avierinos JF, et al. Survival implication of left ventricular end-systolic diameter in mitral regurgitation due to flail leaflets a long-term follow- up multicenter study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 54: 1961e8.

56. Le Tourneau T, Richardson M, Juthier F, et al. Echocardiography predictors and prognostic value of pulmonary artery systolic pressure in chronic organic mitral regurgitation. Heart. 2010; 96: 1311e17.

57. Ahmed MI, Gladden JD, Litovsky SH, et al. Increased oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte myofibrillar degeneration in patients with chronic isolated mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction >60%. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 55: 671e9.

58. Liang YJ, Zhang Q, Fung JW, et al. Impact of reduction in early- and late-systolic functional mitral regurgitation on reverse remodelling after cardiac resynchronization therapy. Eur Heart J. 2010; 31: 2359e68.

59. Bach DS, Awais M, Gurm HS, et al. Failure of guideline adherence for intervention in patients with severe mitral regurgitation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 54: 860e5.

60. Samad Z, Kaul P, Shaw LK, et al. Impact of early surgery on survival of patients with severe mitral regurgitation. Heart. 2011; 97: 221e4.

61. Anyanwu AC, Bridgewater B, Adams DH. The lottery of mitral valve repair surgery. Heart. 2010; 96: 1964e7.

62. Bolling SF, Li S, O’Brien SM, et al. Predictors of mitral valve repair: clinical and surgeon factors. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010; 90: 1904e11; discussion 1912.

63. Yosefy C, Beeri R, Guerrero JL, et al. Mitral regurgitation after anteroapical myocardial infarction: new mechanistic insights. Circulation. 2011; 123: 1529e36.

64. Chaput M, Handschumacher MD, Guerrero JL, et al. Mitral leaflet adaptation to ventricular remodeling: prospective changes in a model of ischemic mitral regurgitation. Circulation. 2009; 120: S99e103.

65. de Varennes B, Chaturvedi R, Sidhu S, et al. Initial results of posterior leaflet extension for severe type IIIb ischemic mitral regurgitation. Circulation. 2009; 119: 2837e43.

66. Dal-Bianco JP, Aikawa E, Bischoff J, et al. Active adaptation of the tethered mitral valve: insights into a compensatory mechanism for functional mitral regurgitation. Circulation. 2009; 120: 334e42.

67. Marechaux S, Pincon C, Poueymidanette M, et al. Elevated left atrial pressure estimated by Doppler echocardiography is a key determinant of mitral valve tenting in functional mitral regurgitation. Heart. 2010; 96: 289e97.

68. Lee AP, Acker M, Kubo SH, et al. Mechanisms of recurrent functional mitral regurgitation after mitral valve repair in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy: importance of distal anterior leaflet tethering. Circulation. 2009; 119: 2606e14.

69. Juang JJ, Ke SR, Lin JL, et al. Rupture of mitral chordae tendineae: adding to the list of hypertension complications. Heart. 2009; 95: 976e9.

70. Topilsky Y, Tribouilloy C, Michelena HI, et al. Pathophysiology of tricuspid regurgitation: quantitative Doppler echocardiographic assessment of respiratory dependence. Circulation. 2010; 122: 1505e13.

71. Jaber WA, Sorajja P, Borlaug BA, et al. Differentiation of tricuspid regurgitation from constrictive pericarditis: novel criteria for diagnosis in the cardiac catheterisation laboratory. Heart. 2009; 95: 1449e54.

72. Park K, Kim HK, Kim YJ, et al. Incremental prognostic value of early postoperative right ventricular systolic function in patients undergoing surgery for isolated severe tricuspid regurgitation. Heart. 2011; 97: 1319e25.

73. Song H, Kim MJ, Chung CH, et al. Factors associated with development of late significant tricuspid regurgitation after successful left-sided valve surgery. Heart. 2009; 95: 931e6.

74. Min SY, Song JM, Kim JH, et al. Geometric changes after tricuspid annuloplasty phy study. Eur Heart J. 2010; 31: 2871e80.

75. Topilsky Y, Khanna AD, Oh JK, et al. Preoperative factors associated with adverse outcome after tricuspid valve replacement. Circulation. 2011; 123: 1929e39.

76. Choi JH, Cho DK, Song YB, et al. Preoperative NT-proBNP and CRP predict perioperative major cardiovascular events in non-cardiac surgery. Heart. 2010; 96: 56e62.

77. Thuny F, Fournier PE, Casalta JP, et al. Investigation of blood culture-negative early prosthetic valve endocarditis reveals high prevalence of fungi. Heart. 2010; 96: 743e7.

78. Chu VH, Miro JM, Hoen B, et al. Coagulase-negative staphylococcal prosthetic valve endocarditisda contemporary update based on the International Collaboration on Endocarditis: prospective cohort study. Heart. 2009; 95: 570e6.

79. Lopez J, Revilla A, Vilacosta I, et al. Age-dependent profile of left-sided infective endocarditis: a 3-center experience. Circulation. 2010; 121: 892e7.

80. Lopez J, Fernandez-Hidalgo N, Revilla A, et al. Internal and external validation of a model to predict adverse outcomes in patients with left-sided infective endocarditis. Heart. 2011; 97: 1138e42.

81. Tribouilloy C, Rusinaru D, Sorel C, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcome of infective endocarditis in adults with bicuspid aortic valves: a multicentre observational study. Heart. 2010; 96: 1723e9.

82. Hekimian G, Kim M, Passefort S, et al. Preoperative use and safety of coronary angiography for acute aortic valve infective endocarditis. Heart. 2010; 96: 696e700.

83. Lalani T, Cabell CH, Benjamin DK, et al. Analysis of the impact of early surgery o in-hospital mortality of native valve endocarditis: use of propensity score and instrumental variable methods to adjust for treatment-selection bias. Circulation. 2010; 121: 1005e13.

84. Kim DH, Kang DH, Lee MZ, et al. Impact of early surgery on embolic events in patients with infective endocarditis. Circulation. 2010; 122: S17e22.

85. El-Hamamsy I, Eryigit Z, Stevens LM, et al. Long-term outcomes after autograf versus homograft aortic root replacement in adults with aortic valve disease: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010; 376: 524e31.

86. Puranik R, Tsang VT, Broadley A, et al. Functional outcomes after the Ross (pulmonary autograft) procedure assessed with magnetic resonance imaging and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Heart. 2010; 96: 304e8.

87. Mokhles MM, Kortke H, Stierle U, et al. Survival comparison of the Ross procedure and mechanical valve replacement with optimal self-management anticoagulation therapy: propensity-matched cohort study. Circulation. 2011; 123: 31e8.

88. Stulak JM, Burkhart HM, Sundt TM 3rd, et al. Spectrum and outcome of reoperations after the Ross procedure. Circulation 2010;122:1153e8.

89. de Arenaza DP, Pepper J, Lees B, et al. Preoperative 6-minute walk test adds prognostic information to Euroscore in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement. Heart. 2010; 96: 113e17.

90. Rimington H, Weinman J, Chambers JB. Predicting outcome after valve replacement. Heart. 2010; 96:118e23.

91. Fuchs C, Mascherbauer J, Rosenhek R, et al. Gender differences in clinical presentation and surgical outcome of aortic stenosis. Heart. 2010; 96: 539e45.

92. 92.Sharma A, Gilbertson DT, Herzog CA. Survival of kidney transplantation patients in the United States after cardiac valve replacement. Circulation. 2010; 121: 2733e9.

93. Stassano P, Di Tommaso L, Monaco M, et al. Aortic valve replacement: a prospective randomized evaluation of mechanical versus biological valves in patients ages 55 to 70 years. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 54: 1862e8.

94. Stoica S, Goldsmith K, Demiris N, et al. Microsimulation and clinical outcomes analysis support a lower age threshold for use of biological valves. Heart. 2010; 96: 1730e6.

95. Ashikhmina EA, Schaff HV, Dearani JA, et al. Aortic valve replacement in the elderly: determinants of late outcome. Circulation. 2011; 124: 1070e8.

96. Likosky DS, Sorensen MJ, Dacey LJ, et al. Long-term survival of the very elderly undergoing aortic valve surgery. Circulation. 2009; 120: S127e33.

97. Bleiziffer S, Ali A, Hettich IM, et al. Impact of the indexed effective orifice area on mid-term cardiac-related mortality after aortic valve replacement. Heart. 2010; 96: 865e71.

98. Mohty D, Dumesnil JG, Echahidi N, et al. Impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch on long-term survival after aortic valve replacement: influence of age, obesity, and left ventricular dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 53: 39e47.

99. Unger P, Magne J, Vanden Eynden F, et al. Impact of prosthesis-patient mismatch on mitral regurgitation after aortic valve replacement. Heart. 2010; 96: 1627e32.

100. Flameng W, Herregods MC, Vercalsteren M, et al. Prosthesis-patient mismatch predicts structural valve degeneration in bioprosthetic heart valves. Circulation. 2010; 121: 2123e9.

101. Shi WY, Yap CH, Hayward PA, et al. Impact of prosthesisdpatient mismatch after mitral valve replacement: a multicentre analysis of early outcomes and mid-term survival. Heart. 2011; 97: 1074e81.

102. Chikwe J, Goldstone AB, Passage J, et al. A propensity score-adjusted retrospective comparison of early and mid-term results of mitral valve repair versus replacement in octogenarians. Eur Heart J. 2011; 32: 618e26.

103. Kim JB, Ju MH, Yun SC, et al. Mitral valve replacement with or without a concomitant Maze procedure in patients with atrial fibrillation. Heart. 2010; 96: 1126e31. 2016 Heart 2011; 97:2007e2017. [DOI via Crossref] 104. Magne J, Girerd N, Senechal M, et al. Mitral repair versus replacement for ischemic mitral regurgitation: comparison of short-term and long-term survival. Circulation. 2009; 120: S104e11.

105. Penicka M, Linkova H, Lang O, et al. Predictors of improvement of unrepaired moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation in patients undergoing elective isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Circulation. 2009; 120: 1474e81.

106. Bernal JM, Ponton A, Diaz B, et al. Combined mitral and tricuspid valve repair in rheumatic valve disease: fewer reoperations with prosthetic ring annuloplasty. Circulation. 2010; 121: 1934e40.

107. Allou N, Piednoir P, Berroeta C, et al. Incidence and risk factors of early thromboembolic events after mechanical heart valve replacement in patients treated with intravenous unfractionated heparin. Heart. 2009; 95: 1694e700.

108. Karthikeyan G, Math RS, Mathew N, et al. Accelerated infusion of streptokinase for the treatment of left-sided prosthetic valve thrombosis: a randomized controlled trial. Circulation. 2009; 120: 1108e14.

109. Osswald BR, Gegouskov V, Badowski-Zyla D, et al. Overestimation of aortic valve replacement risk by EuroSCORE: implications for percutaneous valve replacement. Eur Heart J. 2009; 30: 74e80.

110. Rosenhek R, Iung B, Tornos P, et al. ESC Working Group on Valvular Heart Disease Position Paper: assessing the risk of interventions in patients with valvular heart disease. Eur Heart J. Published Online First: 15 March 2011. PMID: 21406443.

111. Delgado V, Ng AC, van de Veire NR, et al. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: role of multi-detector row computed tomography to evaluate prosthesis positioning and deployment in relation to valve function. Eur Heart J. 2010; 31: 1114e23.

112. Altiok E, Koos R, Schroder J, et al. Comparison of two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging techniques for measurement of aortic annulus diameters before transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Heart. 2011; 97: 1578e84.

113. Messika-Zeitoun D, Serfaty JM, Brochet E, et al. Multimodal assessment of the aortic annulus diameter: implications for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 55: 186e94.

114. Ng AC, Yiu KH, Ewe SH, et al. Influence of left ventricular geometry and function on aortic annular dimensions as assessed with multi-detector row computed tomography: implications for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Eur Heart J. 2011; 32: 2806e13.

115. 115. Schultz CJ, Weustink A, Piazza N, et al. Geometry and degree of apposition of the CoreValve ReValving system with multislice computed tomography after implantation in patients with aortic stenosis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 54: 911e18.

116. Leon MB, Piazza N, Nikolsky E, et al. Standardized endpoint definitions for transcatheter aortic valve implantation clinical trials: a consensus report from the Valve Academic Research Consortium. Eur Heart J. 2011; 32: 205e17.

117. Piazza N, Otten A, Schultz C, et al. Adherence to patient selection criteria in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the 18F CoreValve ReValving System. Heart. 2010; 96: 19e26.

118. Himbert D, Descoutures F, Al-Attar N, et al. Results of transfemoral or transapical aortic valve implantation following a uniform assessment in high-risk patients with aortic stenosis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 54: 303e11.

119. Grant SW, Devbhandari MP, Grayson AD, et al. What is the impact of providing a transcatheter aortic valve implantation service on conventional aortic valve surgical activity: patient risk factors and outcomes in the first 2 years. Heart. 2010; 96: 1633e7.

120. Webb JG, Altwegg L, Boone RH, et al. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: impact on clinical and valve-related outcomes. Circulation. 2009; 119: 3009e16.

121. Walther T, Schuler G, Borger MA, et al. Transapical aortic valve implantation in 100 consecutive patients: comparison to propensity-matched conventional aortic valve replacement. Eur Heart J. 2010; 31: 1398e403.

122. Gurvitch R, Wood DA, Tay EL, et al. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: durability of clinical and hemodynamic outcomes beyond 3 years in a large patient cohort. Circulation. 2010; 122: 1319e27.

123. Leon MB, Smith CR, Mack M, et al. Transcatheter aortic-valve implantation for aortic stenosis in patients who cannot undergo surgery. N Engl J Med. 2010; 363: 1597e607.

124. Smith CR, Leon MB, Mack MJ, et al. Transcatheter versus surgical aortic-valve replacement in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2011; 364: 2187e98.

125. Thomas M, Schymik G, Walther T, et al. One-year outcomes of cohort 1 in the Edwards SAPIEN Aortic Bioprosthesis European Outcome (SOURCE) registry: the European registry of transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the Edwards SAPIEN valve. Circulation. 2011; 124: 425e33.

126. Lefevre T, Kappetein AP, Wolner E, et al. One year follow-up of the multi-centre European PARTNER transcatheter heart valve study. Eur Heart J. 2011; 32: 148e57.

127. Eltchaninoff H, Prat A, Gilard M, et al. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: early results of the FRANCE (FRench Aortic National CoreValve and Edwards) registry. Eur Heart J. 2011; 32: 191e7.

128. Zahn R, Gerckens U, Grube E, et al. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: first results from a multi-centre real-world registry. Eur Heart J. 2011; 32: 198e204.

129. Tamburino C, Capodanno D, Ramondo A, et al. Incidence and predictors of early and late mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation in 663 patients with severe aortic stenosis. Circulation. 2011; 123: 299e308.

130. Rodes-Cabau J, Webb JG, Cheung A, et al. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation for the treatment of severe symptomatic aortic stenosis in patients at very high or prohibitive surgical risk: acute and late outcomes of the multicenter Canadian experience. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 55: 1080e90.

131. Buellesfeld L, Gerckens U, Schuler G, et al. 2-year follow-up of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation using a self-expanding valve prosthesis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 57: 1650e7.

132. Clavel MA, Webb JG, Pibarot P, et al. Comparison of the hemodynamic performance of percutaneous and surgical bioprostheses for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 53: 1883e91.

133. Kalavrouziotis D, Rodes-Cabau J, Bagur R, et al. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with severe aortic stenosis and small aortic annulus. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 58: 1016e24.

134. Clavel MA, Webb JG, Rodes-Cabau J, et al. Comparison between transcatheter and surgical prosthetic valve implantation in patients with severe aortic stenosis and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Circulation. 2010; 122: 1928e36.

135. Buellesfeld L, Wenaweser P, Gerckens U, et al. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: predictors of procedural successdthe Siegburg-Bern experience. Eur Heart J. 2010; 31: 984e91.

136. Gotzmann M, Hehen T, Germing A, et al. Short-term effects of transcatheter aortic valve implantation on neurohormonal activation, quality of life and 6-minute walk test in severe and symptomatic aortic stenosis. Heart. 2010; 96: 1102e6.

137. Bagur R, Webb JG, Nietlispach F, et al. Acute kidney injury following transcatheter aortic valve implantation: predictive factors, prognostic value, and comparison with surgical aortic valve replacement. Eur Heart J. 2010; 31: 865e74.

138. Rodes-Cabau J, Gutierrez M, Bagur R, et al. Incidence, predictive factors, and prognostic value of myocardial injury following uncomplicated transcatheter aortic valve implantation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 57: 1988e99.

139. Abdel-Wahab M, Zahn R, Horack M, et al. Aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: incidence and early outcome. Results from the German transcatheter aortic valve interventions registry. Heart. 2011; 97: 899e906.

140. Sherif MA, Abdel-Wahab M, Stocker B, et al. Anatomic and procedural predictors of paravalvular aortic regurgitation after implantation of the Medtronic CoreValve bioprosthesis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 56: 1623e9.

141. Ghanem A, Muller A, Nahle CP, et al. Risk and fate of cerebral embolism after transfemoral aortic valve implantation: a prospective pilot study with diffusion- weighted magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 55: 1427e32.

142. Kahlert P, Knipp SC, Schlamann M, et al. Silent and apparent cerebral ischemia after percutaneous transfemoral aortic valve implantation: a diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging study. Circulation. 2010; 121: 870e8.

143. Rodes-Cabau J, Dumont E, Boone RH, et al. Cerebral embolism following transcatheter aortic valve implantation: comparison of transfemoral and transapical approaches. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 57: 18e28.

144. Ussia GP, Barbanti M, Ramondo A, et al. The valve-in-valve technique for treatment of aortic bioprosthesis malposition an analysis of incidence and 1-year clinical outcomes from the italian CoreValve registry. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 57: 1062e8.

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